Gasket Materials By Industry
Commonly Used Gasket Materials By Sector:
Oil and Gas
Generally this industry will utilise spiral wounds, ring type joints, Kammprofile gaskets, non-asbestos material including brand names Klinger and Flexitallic (previously called Novus). Composite materials including mica and graphite, all these materials are utilised in high temperature, high pressure environments.
This industry will generally utilise silicone as a high temperature polymer that can be supplied in O-ring, sheet and liquid form. Nitrile and viton that are fuel and oil resistant are other often used polymers. EPDM is commonly used for door seals and plastic foams are used for seat fillers. Within the combustion areas of the engines, graphite and non-asbestos (including brand names Flexitallic and Klinger) materials will be used, these are resistant to fuels and oils combined with high temperatures (approx. +350⁰C). Finally, a cork composite material, often natural cork blended with nitrile can be used as a cheaper alternative to pure nitrile rubber. Classic cars now use a range of modern materials since asbestos is no longer allowed as a fibre within gasket formulations.
This industry will utilise many different gasket materials. The certification requirements that need to be supplied along with the gaskets are often the most critical aspect within Aerospace. Products supplied in this area are supported by Certificates of Conformity, including batch and cure dates with full traceability. Supply chain, and specific standards like RR SABRE can be met by RAM when producing gaskets for the Aerospace industry.
Temperature limits in food production are also required to be taste and taint free. Silicone is most often utilised in this environment as a stable high-temperature polymer that also inhibits bacterial growth. For steam and high pressure environments non-asbestos material and graphite is required. EPDM is used in potable water applications which has great UV and environmental resistance over a number of years and seals effectively. PTFE with low co-efficient friction and excellent chemical resistance is used as an envelope to line flange gaskets made from rubber or non-asbestos.
Potable water in the UK often requires WRAS approval (Water Regulations Advisory Scheme). WRAS approved EPDM is stocked by RAM in the form of sheet, O-rings, and cord. Other weather seal materials that have very good UV resistance are EPDM, neoprene, non-asbestos and graphitewill be used when steam is present along with higher pressures.
Enclosure gaskets require weather seals, UV resistance and general weather fluctuations and conditions mean an effective seal is required against weather elements. Cork, Nebar Cork, Neoprene, EPDM, nitrile foams and rubbers are used here. For conductive gasket materials and EMEI shielding products conductive foam can be used, wired silicone (solid/foam) and branded composite gasket materials can be supplied. Plastic shim is also used as a spacing and insulating material within the electrical industry. Gaskets can be selected to help meet IP tests. The test applies to the assembly not the gasket itself.
Flange Gaskets within this industry are often made with non-asbestos gasket material, including brands such as Flexitallic and Klinger. For higher pressure spiral wounds, Kammprofile, mica and graphite are used. Quality and safety in a volatile environment is paramount. Fuel, oil and corrosion resistant high grade rubbers such as nitrile, viton, silicone and PTFE in foam and solid form are also used. The quality of the rubber in high corrosion environments is very important. Correct supply of quality materials ensures an effective seal. PTFE as a low co-efficient friction material with excellent chemical resistance is supplied as envelopes for pipe flange gaskets, in sheet form or foamed to create a compressible material for sealing uneven flange faces.
Silicone rubber is often used within pharmaceutical environments. Platinum and peroxide curing of silicone for medical grade applications are often required. RAM can cut cured materials in a clean environment. For flange gaskets and equipment seals PTFE is used in the form of envelopes as a low bacterial growth, clean liner to pipe gaskets. Envelopes were developed as a cheaper alternative to solid PTFE for flange gaskets. Solid PTFE and foamed PTFE in the form of Softchem or other brand names are used when a compressible PTFE is required. Expanded PTFE is often used for sealing uneven flanges against very aggressive chemicals. Modified PTFEs are available for special environments that enhance the capabilities of PTFE.
Plastic shim is commonly used for pneumatic air compressors, boosters and vacuum pumps. Plastic shim provides good corrosion resistance and low co-efficient friction. EPDM and neoprene are used for pipe gaskets. When corrosive liquids are being used nitrile, viton, PTFE and Non-asbestos can also be used.
For enclosures and components within internal public spaces a FAR 25.853 approval as discussed above may be required. Silicone, EPDM, nitrile can be supplied in solid or foam form. Manway gaskets in non-asbestos, viton and EPDM to seal against fuel, oil and water are most commonly utilised.